12 June 1898. Emilio Aguinaldo declares Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite. The United States and Spain, however, refused to recognize Aguinaldo's proclamation and proceeded to strike a deal that came to be known as the 1898 Treaty of Paris in which Spain formally and totally relinquished imperial control over the Philippines to the US for USD 20-M.
Recommended Reading: Turot, Henri. Emilio Aguinaldo: First Filipino President, 1898-1901. Trans. Pacifico A. Castro. Manila: Foreign Service Institute, 1981. Reprint, Manila: Solar Publishing Corporation, 1990. Online articles: Evolution of the Philippine Flag ; The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence
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